500 gr. sawn Belgorod chalk = 15 bars
Chalk sawn Belgorod. Hardwood place Belgorod arrangement is to join Don and the Dnieper. The area has a huge number of Belgorodschiny reserves, fully reflecting the unique vegetation of this region of the world. Of particular influence on it it has an abundance of minerals, so that the soil is supersaturated with chemical elements. production of “Chalk Belgorod sawn” Here and located. Chalk has completely natural structure. Extracted from the blocks, it is sawn into neat slices (furrows of tools – vivid evidence), while remaining impervious to chemical treatment. A characteristic feature of the Belgorod chalk – oily texture, which makes it without any extra particles are completely dissolved in the mouth. Belgorod sawn chalk is creamy, has the smell of whitewash and rain, a little greasy. It is easy to bite off, it crunches initially and finally melts in your mouth.
What are the good and close with the words of childhood. Education of children with childhood desire to love, to cherish its edge. Find out what is rich in native land and the famous. One of the resources Belogoriya – chalk.
Subject chalk – one of the sections of the world.
This work enables deeper and broader study this fossil. The study of the properties of chalk and its importance in human life and was the hypothesis of the research work.
During the presented experiments investigating the properties of chalk, draw conclusions about the significance of chalk in industry, medicine. These studies make it possible to conclude that the person needs a chalk on a daily basis.
The paper presents the interesting reports of local history material – about Holkovsky caves. Interesting information about why the monks chose the chalk mountains, rather than clay or sand.
The chosen theme is interesting. Described experiments conducted in work, allow to diversify the forms of work with the material as in the classroom and in extracurricular activities.
Our children are no longer satisfied with the role of passive listeners, so they are looking for ways of working, which can realize their activity, cravings for search operations.
Great Russia, but for each of us it begins with their native land. Belgorod Region is located in the central part of the Russian plain within the Central Black Earth region. The nature of our area is very picturesque. Along the wide river valleys stretching steep banks covered with bushes and forests, chalk cliffs form fantastic “Belogoriya”. Along the riverbeds yellow sand bars.
To understand and love this nature, it is necessary to know well. It is necessary for each of us.
Often while traveling with my parents on our Belgorod region, I paid attention to the beautiful White Mountains, they have a lot.
Even in the gullies can be seen the place, consisting of pure chalk. I always wondered what the chalk and why it is so much in the Belgorod region, for what it is or where it is used? After all, not only to write on the blackboard and whiten borders. In November of 2008. my parents and I visited Holkovsky cave monastery. These caves dug into the chalk hill. After that I decided to dedicate his work studying the Belgorod chalk, its properties and applications.
The aim is to study the physical properties of chalk and its application in the national economy.
To achieve the goal we have set the following objectives: to study the literature on the subject; consider the physical properties of chalk; find chalk importance in human life.
The relevance of this theme is that each of us needs to know as much as possible about the native land and its minerals – chalk.
The hypothesis has been put forward by the study:
Belgorod chalk – valuable minerals, which has wide application in the national economy.
I. The theoretical part.
Visiting Belgorod universal scientific library (Local History Department), after studying the literature on the topic of interest to us, t. Ch. “The geological structure and mineral resources of the Belgorod region” Khrisanov Q. And we know and have learned the following information.
Mel – carbonate rock (limestone variety), soft and crumbly, consists almost entirely of tiny grains cryptocrystalline mineral calcite (natural calcium carbonate), constituting up to 99% of the total weight. Externally, it is weakly cemented white, fine-grained, stain the rock, called “writer’s white chalk.”
The carbonate of the chalk is made up of three groups of components: organic residues (organic residues usually compose most of the species (75%) in the main part they are represented by skeletal shells of planktonic algae-coccolithophorids and foraminifera.); calcium crystals with well-defined edges; powdered calcite.
Non-carbonate of the most represented in the chalk quartz, feldspar, opal, chalcedony, and others. The content of non-carbonate rocks is small, but they significantly complicate the technology to produce high-quality chalk powder.
The Cretaceous strata observed sustained development of large cracks – and vertical reservoir filled with chalk flour. On the surface crack network outputs greatly thickened.
It was found that chalk poluskalnyh relates to hard rocks. His strength depends on humidity.
Possibilities of industrial use of chalk is defined as the composition of its constituent components and their structural features, on which depends mainly on the physical and mechanical properties of rocks.
The percentage content of chalk carbonates characterizes its quality determines the production and availability of Chalk technology products for various sectors of the economy.
The chemical composition of Cretaceous rocks are more uniform in the field and are different for the main constituent elements in a small range. However, during prolonged operation of the field, and especially in the transition of the Cretaceous enterprise to produce higher quality products Chalk it was found that in different parts (depths) as the chalk is different in chemical composition and physico-mechanical properties. In this regard, some deposits of chalk held geological and technological mapping, in which the designated areas of quality chalk.
II. The study of the physical properties of chalk.
Property №1 Mel does not dissolve in water.
take water and crushed chalk to conduct this experiment. Mel added to the water and stir. What do we see? Mel turns cloudy solution in water.
Now, we observe further. After some time, we see that exfoliate solution. Chalk sank to the bottom of the cup.
With this experience, we have confirmed that the chalk is not soluble in water.
№2 property has viscosity and elasticity properties.
For this experiment, we take the crushed chalk and mix with a little water, t. E. Increasing the moisture content of chalk. We see that the chalk is now forms a homogeneous viscous mass.
Manifestation of visco-plastic properties of the natural chalk with increasing humidity leads to serious complications in its production and processing. From this comes the chalk sticking to cell vehicles (excavator bucket, box truck, feeder, conveyor belt). There is a sticking roller gear grinders. This leads in some cases to the chalk production failure from lower horizons flooded, although the quality of the lower Cretaceous horizon refers to quality Cretaceous.
Take the hammer for beating the meat and a piece of moistened chalk.
Let’s try to chop a piece of chalk with a hammer.
We see that the chalk at elevated humidity, there is a build-up in the hammer. This leads to difficulties in grinding chalk.
These experiments, we confirmed that Mel at a specific humidity has the properties of viscosity and elasticity.
From the book “Geology and mineral resources of the Belgorod region” Khrisanov Q. And we have learned that Mel has two other properties are:
Property №3 strength of chalk depends on the humidity
When humidifying chalk strength starts to decrease already at a moisture content of 1-2% and at a humidity of 20-30% compressive strength increased by 2-3 fold
Frost №4 property.
Natural chalk has virtually no frost, after several freeze-thaw cycles, it is divided into separate pieces of 1-3 mm size. This phenomenon, in some cases, is a positive factor.
For example, when using chalk as soil improver for deoxidation it is not necessary to grind, and can be applied to the soil before crushed chalk – 10 mm. When freezing and thawing annual tilling the soil pieces of chalk broken and his actions on neutralization of soil stored for a long time.
After studying properties of chalk and check out some of them, on the experiments, we can conclude:
Nature is fine-carbonate rock (limestone variety). Mel is not soluble in water, has no frost under certain humidity has properties of viscosity and elasticity. The strength of chalk depends on the humidity.
Working on this topic I want to talk about one particular of the Belgorod region. On the chalk caves that are dug by monks and monasteries founded in them. In November of 2008. We visited with a guided tour of the cave Holkovsky. Why did monks in the 17th century it was chosen for the base chalk mountains cave monasteries in Belgorod?
During the tour, and explore additional literature we learned that now the monastery come not only pilgrims, worshipers and tourists, but also sick people. In research in high concentrations were found in the air convent caves chemicals such as ozone, oxygen and iodine. They stand out from the Cretaceous strata of rocks under the influence of chemical reactions and healing effects on patients with thyroid disease, respiratory system and tuberculosis.
The temperature in the caves remains constant at any time of the year and is within 8 degrees, no more normal humidity, no moisture, no odor. The specific composition of the air and stable enough temperature is very beneficial effect on the safety of food products, live plants and flowers – which caves conditions without water stored in a good form for about two months.
Unique in its prostate and apparatus cave system of ventilation, preventing the emergence of carbon monoxide from the burning of candles, torches, torches.
According to experts chalk is a very good material for the caves. This explains the good preservation of cells, the temple and the tunnels.
III. The deposits of chalk.
It is strange, but the main stock of chalk in Russia is far from Belgorod region or herself. It turned out that the combination of circumstances, Belgorod region and its suburbs are literally crammed with various types of careers that produce huge amounts of chalk in different varieties and species than can supply the country for all its branches coming years and five hundred.
In the Belgorod region was explored more than 29 chalk deposits with approved reserves of 1.0 bln. Tons. Projected reserves of chalk is almost unlimited. The largest proven deposits of chalk and are Lebedinskoye Stoilensk where chalk is extracted as the overburden. According to the Institute “Tsentrogiproruda” mining chalk-marl rocks in these quarries for the period until 2009 will be about 25 million. M. Annually. Of the total of produced raw swept-margelnogo only 5.0 mln. T. Annually consumed Oskolsky cement plant.
Another large deposit of high-quality chalk is Shebekino, Belgorod region. Chalk reserve is 23.5 million. M., Which makes provision for about 70 years with the production capacity of the plant for processing of chalk 350 thousand. T..
The upper horizon of the “dry” chalk with natural moisture content of about 20% to the absolute level of 145-150m. Cretaceous strata characterized by containing up to 96-97,5% and the insoluble residue of 1.5-2.5%. The lower horizon “wet” chalk with humidity over 20%. to the absolute level of 109 m. it contains 97,5-99% and 0,7-1,9% of insoluble residue.
Modernization of production at the biggest in Russia in chalk production company CJSC “Shebekino chalk plant” allows us to achieve production of high quality grades of chalk and significantly increase their range.
White, granular formulation, calcium allows for Shebekino chalk in paint manufacturing, construction and finishing materials, cable, optical, medical and paper industries. It established a single production in Russia hydrophobic chalk. Belgorod chalk selected major German concern «Caparol» for the licensed production of paints «Alpina», found in Belgorod Chalk supplier, surpassing the quality of the French, Czech and Austrian raw materials. First, without supplies from these countries, such production was impossible.
One of the oldest deposits of chalk, operated for several decades, Belgorod is located practically in the city. The geological structure of the deposit is attended, besides the upper Cretaceous strata, tertiary and quaternary sediments. On the basis of field work Belgorod combine of building materials (BKSM), which produces lime, sand-lime brick and powdered chalk. According to their chemical properties chalk this field can be attributed to the quality, but it has a dense structure and the grinding without classification to obtain conditioned product is not possible.
Among other Belgorod region with high quality chalk explored deposits may be noted Volokonovsky, Chernyansky, Fironovskoe, Churaevskoe.
IV. The use of chalk.
Mel in the modern world industry is a commonly used material. The development of the rubber industry and the electrical, plastics, paint, and others. Industries require increasing the output of high-quality fillers, which primarily relates chalk. Annual consumption of natural chalk in lump, crushed and powdered form in developed countries exceeds 150 mln. Tons.
The most important requirements to the products of chalk (except carbonate content) is its fineness – fineness, expressed residue on sieve of certain sizes or percentages of a given particle size (for example 90% particle size of 2.0 md.). different brands of chalk and destination, manufactured in Russia and CIS countries.
Stamps chalk produced in Russia and their purpose
Brand consumption of chalk chalk
Mel Komkova for the production of lime in the glass, ceramic and other industries
Chalk ground animal feeding in agriculture for animal feeding
Chalk ground purified in rubber, paint, chemical and other industries
Chalk ground separated in the cable, paint, rubber, plastics and other industries
Chalk ground for chemical industry Chemical industry
Chalk ground chemically cleaned in the perfume, cosmetics, rubber, medical, food, etc. Industries
Mel is widely available filler becomes essential for many industries. A distinctive feature of this natural material is the fact that it is easily extracted and processed at relatively low cost. Extraction and processing of chalk does not cause serious environmental violations. General balance reserves of chalk in Russia is estimated at 3.3 billion. M. With unlimited forecasted stocks.
We confirmed the hypothesis put forward by us: Belgorod chalk – valuable minerals, which has wide application in the national economy.
Everyone living in Belgorod, aware of the chalk mountains, but very few are aware of what is chalk, what properties and where to apply.
During the work on this topic, we learned that this chalk, what physical properties has. Some properties of chalk, we have confirmed by experiments. Of particular interest was the information on the use of chalk in the rubber, glass, paper and cosmetics industries.
The feeling of pride for the Native land fills, when you learn about what the chalk has huge reserves of Belgorod region, that Belgorod chalk competitive not only in Russia but also abroad.
A Belgorod chalk cave was a miracle come down to us from time immemorial.
I would like to wish everyone to learn more about their native land. Subject chalk is very interesting. We hope in the future to continue the investigation since the chemical allegations.